5 Hot Projects With Colored Glass Block Windows, Walls & Showers

“What do you have that can add some interest, some pop, some style to this glass block project?” a customer recently asked. With the introduction of colored glass your windows, showers, or wall projects can really stand out without sacrificing the functional benefits of the block. Below you’ll learn about 5 unique projects that combined colors and block patterns to create one of a kind results.

Project 1) Purple Colored Glass Block Windows in a Bookstore–

• The problem – A bookstore in Northwest Ohio had old deteriorated dark purple glass tiles from the 1930’s in their transom windows. Most of these window openings were about 80” x 40” in size. The problem with these tiles is they weren’t energy efficient, many of the tiles and grout joints were cracked, and were no longer commercially available.

• The solution – A deep rich purple amethyst block was specially developed and designed to match the colors of the old glass tiles in this commercial renovation. The advantage of the new block is it is 10 times more energy efficient and the customer had a wide selection of block patterns and styles to choose from. The Argus block pattern from Pittsburgh Corning was selected. The windows were grouted with black mortar for added effect.

Project 2) A Checkerboard Pattern Yellow and Green Glass Block Wall for Privacy in a home near Boston

• The problem – A homeowner near Boston Massachusetts wanted to create a privacy wall between a half bathroom on one side and a kitchen with a uniquely colored pot belly stove on the other side (the pot belly stove was a light green, and the kitchens colors were going to be redesigned to be earth tones and yellows). Since the bathroom had a window the goal was to move light from the outside of the home, through the half bath area, and into the kitchen without sacrificing privacy in the bathroom.

• The solution – A standard amber goldenrod yellow block and a custom designed light green block were designed for this project to augment the colors of the pot belly stove and walls in this home. The Icescapes pattern block from Pittsburgh Corning was chosen to provide privacy for the half bath. Five 40” x 16” panel sections were fabricated and shipped (using the vinyl stack fabrication system) to the project by Columbus Glass Block with the color checkerboard (alternating yellow & green colors) pattern in the top 3 courses (the entire wall was 80” high and the color blocks were used in the top 24” area of the project).

Project 3) Random Red, Yellow, Green, Purple, & Blue Colors for a Glass Block Walk In Shower in Cincinnati Ohio

• The problem – A customer of Mid America Glass Block in Cincinnati & Dayton Ohio wanted the maintenance free benefits of a walk in block shower to stop having to clean the bottom of the framed shower wall & door system of her old shower. In addition she wanted a fun and contemporary way to add some pop and interest to the design for a more eclectic look.

• The solution – For this project the goal was to add the design and style through the color of the blocks and not the pattern within the blocks. A standard Wavy pattern block from Mulia was chosen using finished end blocks for the two walls of the shower. The colored blocks were used in a random fashion through one of the walls including the finished end blocks and radius block units.

Project 4) A Ruby Red Color Cross Inside Vinyl Framed Glass Block Windows for a Church in Arkansas

• The problem – A commercial general contractor in Arkansas called because a church they were working for had a problem with vandalism and high heating and cooling costs with their existing single pane wood frame windows. The pastor wanted vandal and graffiti resistant windows that would be hard to break, but also wanted to add color and interest for the inside of the church. Most of the color blocks they saw in their local market were dull pastel colors that would not provide the vibrancy the pastor wanted on the inside of the church.

• The solution – Since these windows were inside a wood framed structure a vinyl framed glass block window was chosen for it’s ease of installation and long term durability. The pastor chose to design in a ruby red colored block as a cross in the center of the 40” wide by 72” window openings. The Icescapes pattern was used for the cross and the Decora pattern was used around the cross – making the cross really stand out through both it’s pattern and the vibrant red color. The block now provides the security, energy efficiency, and style all in one for this church. The cost of this window was lower than stained glass as well.

Project 5) Stripes of Colors through a Glass Block Bar in New York City, New York

• The problem – A loft owner in New York City was looking for a cool way to create a bar for entertaining in their new space. They liked the idea of lighting through blocks, but fiber optic systems were too expensive and standard rope lighting was too dull.

• The solution – This glass bar, which was designed 40” in height, was built with a sapphire dark blue block to accent the chrome and blue colors in the room. The blue block was used in every other course of the bars blocks including the corner and end finishing blocks to create a striped design.

Color glass block windows, showers, and wall projects can combine both excellent functional benefits with a high degree of style. The design options for this product have never been greater.

Guide To Choosing Wall Art For A Soothing Retreat

Even though the bathroom is likely the less spacious area in the home, it is an important area to each member of the family. Because of this, it is only right that you are able to decorate and design it in such a way that it will provide a relaxing ambience to anyone who seeks to pacify a nature’s call.

The tips that follow will help you to make good decisions when choosing bathroom decor.

Design with a theme in mind.

There are many themes you can use to make your bathroom appear appealing and soothing to the senses. One of the best options is a tropical theme, which enables you to accentuate your artistic imagination by grouping together tropical pieces that will turn your bathroom into a tropical island retreat. A palm tree copper sculptures, a hibiscus patterned shower curtain, a clear vase filled with shells and sea treasures are just few of the many decorating ideas you can make use of.

Another nice theme suggestion is nautical decorating, which you can put up using sailboat patterned shower curtain, framed photographs of sea animals or a miniature lighthouse, which can also serve as a lamp for the bathroom.

Enhance the walls through color and art.

Wall arts and paint colors can transform a dull and plain bathroom into a room that breathes life and a classy style. Having a theme for the bathroom makes it easier for you to choose wall paint or metal art sculpture that will enhance the overall design of the room. Nonetheless, you can choose wall art with a neutral style if you do not have a motif. For instance, you can use contemporary wall decorations or a idyllic landscape to decorate the walls of the bathroom.

Personalize the area.

It is true that every room in your home should have at least even a small reflection of your personal taste and style. For the bathroom, incorporate your preferences by choosing bathroom furniture that you really like such as vanity shelves, wall cabinets and cabinets above the toilet. Choose the color, materials and style depending on what you like, not based on what is trendy and popular.

Supply some nice fragrance.

Place some potpourri, scented soap or scented candles in the bathroom to give it a wonderful smell and aura that will make it even more inviting than it already is. Be cautious when burning candles and never leave them unattended as it increases the risk of fire.

Do not hang oil paintings in the bathroom.

A high moisture and humidity in the bathroom makes it a less than ideal place for hanging photographs and oil paintings. You should hang printed wall art and wall sculptures in this area that is not susceptible to damage from moisture.

Decorating a bathroom is not that difficult although it is a smaller space. Coming up with a theme and integrate the decor accordingly. In addition to that, with so many bathroom decors that are available in the market today such as fixtures, hardware, paint colors and wall arts, decorating this little sanctuary can be a cinch.

Decorating a bathroom can be easy if you have a theme, enhance the walls, add some fragrance and choose the right wall decorations for it.

Refurbish Your Home With Amazing And Beautiful Designs Of Wall Tiles

In today’s changing environment people have become more advanced so they have started to think about their standard in the society. According to them, the more stylish and well-designed home they have, the more respect they have in the society. That’s the reason that today they can compromise with their food but not ready to lose any point when it comes to adorning their homes or offices.

For these people, there is a wide selection of materials available in the market today that come in different colours, sizes, textures, patterns. Among them wall tiles are one of the latest materials that add an unexceptional beauty and translucent look to your home.

The tile reveals the volume of your home and stand as soul witnesses to portray the aura and the grandeur. While designing your home, you invest your lifelong savings and even share your heart with your house. So, the decision regarding the choosing of tiles should be a better one.

With any doubt, your immense attachment is clearly revealed from the interior of your house. People are now showing their interests to beautify to their homes. Keeping in mind the different interest of the different home owners the manufacturers, the designers and the retailers have vowed to satisfy everybody’s taste.

There are a countless number of retailers available in the market to provide the best tile for the best design, and simultaneously offer products ranging from the very cheap to the bespoke designer tile.

Wall tiles are not only used in the kitchens and bathrooms, but people have now broadened their visions and ideas. And, this has been made possible with the introduction of the Internet facility. Therefore, the world has become very small and hence the communication and connection has become easier. With the net surfing and getting various kind of knowledge related to the home adoring, people have build one kind of passion that to construct their homes according to their own choices.

Unlikely to the past time, in the present scenario people now travel more and appreciate the style and culture of European Gulf and Mediterranean dominions and their resultant styles of architecture, everything about the homes has become exquisite and unique in its own context. We can easily understand the taste and culture of a people after the interior design of his home.

There are different types of wall tiles having various designs available in the high street. You may get confused with this vast mixture, but one does not need to worry because you may take the help of the catalogues or the wiser option would be to rely upon the net after which a better decision can be taken.

What is the Best Bathroom Wall Design?

Whether you are remodeling your existing bathroom or creating a new one for your new home, the bathroom’s wall design is an important factor that should be kept in mind. When you plan to revamp your bathroom, you must prioritize the work; you can start off by giving the wall design a high priority as it is often ignored and only considered as an after thought. It is very crucial to decide the material that you would like to use to give your bathroom wall a new look. You have a wide range of material types to choose from and every type exhibits numerous colors and patterns.

When you start the work of revamping your bath wall it is important to determine the wall design and material that will be used for the remodeling. You can use materials like marble, colored or plain tiles, terra cotta, limestone, glass, stone etc. Determine the advantages and disadvantages of every material type and decide which suits you the best. Most people would consider installing marble tiles, as it gives a unique look to the walls of your bath. Terra cotta tiles to cover the walls are also a good option as it is known for its long lifespan as compared to other conventional materials.

You can also affix glass to act as the bathroom wall design, provided it should be installed by a professional who can do it in the best way possible. You may require help from a professional as this glass should be handled with care because they are expensive and can break easily. Vinyl tiles are an affordable and less expensive alternative to the other materials. There are many people who have used vinyl tiles to fix on their bathroom walls as they are easy to install and to revamp in case you plan to modify your bathroom’s design in the future. If you choose to use granite tiles or any conventional tiles, you can also use more than one different pattern to create a unique look.

Concrete walls are one of the best options when you consider modifying your bathroom wall. The concrete wall enables you to change the pattern and color as and when you want it to be done. Adding textures to such walls may increase the attractiveness of your bathroom. You may choose from a range of textures to beautify your walls. You may ask your contractor to provide you with different designs to make the correct choice. If you plan to do a one-time investment, make sure you go for good quality materials that will last you longer and cost you less on the long run.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/3174606

Retaining Wall Design – A Structured Plan For Quality Retaining Walls

A retaining wall design is a structured plan on building retaining walls to restrain soil and other loose material where sudden changes in ground elevation may occur due to environmental factors. The material which was held back by the structure may exert an effort towards the wall where it may overturn or slide it. The most usual type of retaining the wall is the cantilever where it is used for walls that have height ranges of 10 to 25ft. The cantilever beam will compose of the stem, heel and toe of the wall.

A retaining wall design calculates the soil bearing pressure under the foot of a cantilever concrete retaining wall sustaining any type of backfill material with extra loads and condensed peripheral masses staging on the wall.

The retaining plan for walls also includes proper examination of the strength of the entire structure of the wall and then the actual design is executed, either based on the Working Stress Design Method of the ultimate strength design method of ACI or the lateral pressure designed by any of the Rankine or Coulomb theory. The Seismic design is according to the Mononobe-Okabe approach. The wall plans will also consider the possibility sliding of the entire construction. This should be taken into account as the possibility may cause malfunction of the wall.

The necessary input data embraces all wall measurements, backfill slope, concrete and steel concentration, admissible soil bearing load, and backfill properties. The wall plan will alternatively make an allowance for additional peripheral loads applied to the wall, and replacing the pressure. A surcharge may possibly be defined as an equal height of the block. Deep loads might also be used on walls. This is for the most part functional in the design of bridge abutments wherein beams or girders reactions have to be used with support.

All data are necessary to compute the right dimensions in coming up with the wall layout. Designers and engineers will go through in depth research, geographical measurements and critical thinking so that retaining walls are built with quality and durability that is able to stand the assumed environmental conditions that may affect the wall structure. Tools are used to computer the highest soil pressure that is under the toe and heel of the wall and it is compared to a tolerable soil pressure. The safety factor to avoid sliding is then increased according to the comparisons.

The procedure in creating a retaining plan for walls should not be taken for granted. It is critical that the right dimension and calculations are determined so that the right materials are assessed and used for a better retaining wall. A quality retaining wall is able to withstand allowable pressure to prevent unwanted damages. This could be achievable with the right retaining wall design.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/5822308

Vinyl Wall Designs – Durable, Stylish And Practical

For anyone seeking to personalize areas of their home or office, here is a tip. Take a good look at what a beautifully designed, easy to apply vinyl wall design can do for that special place, special wall or special room. The vinyl wall design market is booming and with good reason. For a very reasonable price, you can receive a vibrant wall design from any number of themes. These designs will bring that special place to life and even better will provide unexpected durability and flexibility.

Vinyl wall designs are built with the customer in mind. Each order is precision-cut with special cutters guided by computer software. Selections are huge and verbiage or slogans can be added to enhance the theme. The designs are produced on high quality Type II commercial-grade vinyl wall covering and are extremely durable. All vinyl wall designs exceed fire code ratings for interior applications.

Indoor vinyl wall designs are guaranteed for life. Exterior designs are guaranteed for 3 years unless installed under an awning, in which case the guarantee is longer. In most cases, vinyl wall coverings can be removed and re-used. Simply use a blow dryer to loosen the seal and remove. Re-install in an area of your choice and enjoy another three-year guarantee. It really is as simple as that. The only complications will come with designs that contain small thin lettering.

In addition to being customized, each mural is created to meet the highest standards that produce uniform results and flawless details that simply cannot be matched by paper murals. Vinyl murals are printed with UV protected inks that discourage fading. Pick out a design, size it to your wall’s specifications and wait for delivery of a perfect match that will last for years.

One of the advantages of vinyl wall coverings is the cleaning ease. The material is virtually tear proof and can be cleaned thoroughly with a mild mixture of soap and water.

To install new vinyl wall coverings, a few simple tools and supplies will be needed. A sturdy, sharp pair of scissors, a stiff plastic card or ruler, an erasable pen and a level are the recommended tools. For supplies, add a roll of masking tape and a damp cloth and the installation process is good to go.

When the vinyl wall design arrives, unroll carefully and lay the design on a flat surface. Starting at the center, use the ruler/card to flatten the design and eliminate any wrinkles by working outwards towards the edges.

Each vinyl wall design consists of three layers; a bottom layer of base paper, a middle layer of vinyl and the top layer of protective transfer tape. The top and bottom layers will be solely used for installation purposes and will be discarded upon completion of the installation.

If the design contains lines of text, scissors should be used to cut a straight, horizontal line between the text lines. The design will be applied in two separate applications.

The damp cloth is used to thoroughly clean the wall to be covered. Once the wall is cleaned, the level and the erasable pen should be used to leave leveling marks on the right and left side of the wall.

Six, three inch cuts of masking tape that can be easily removed should be placed on the wall. Tape together the top center to the bottom center and tape the right sides. The taping should be secure and firm enough to avoid any tilt.

Beginning with the left side, the transfer tape or top layer should be pulled up along with the vinyl or second layer. Once the left half of the base paper is free, the scissors should be used to cut away the left half of the bottom layer. Throw the left side base paper away. Starting at the middle and working upwards, the hands should now smooth the vinyl paper onto the wall. The masking tape should be removed and the same procedure should be followed for the right side.

Once the graphic is completely on the wall, the ruler/card should be used to securely affix the design to the wall. The transfer tape should then be removed the self-installation is complete.

The room will look amazingly different, clean and unique. The cost is reasonable and the value is great. Within minutes, vinyl wall designs can spice up the appearance of any wall or any room with no damage or risk to the covered wall. The new room should spring to life while creating a memorable impression.

Stud Wall Design For A Quiet Living Space

Stud wall design plays an important role in noise transmission from room to room in your home. Staggered stud wall design can help soundproof any area of your home.

Construction begins with a wider than normal top and bottom beam, usually a 2 x 6 or a 2 x 8 instead of a 2 x 4. 2 X 4 studs are screwed in an alternating pattern along the base plate. The studs are spaced 16 inches on center across the beam and two 22’s are security each end to support the weight of drywall. This creates form of discontinuous construction. This prevents noise from being conducted from one sheet of drywall, through the studs, and into the next room.

Metal studs can also be used in place of timber to further reduce the conduction of sound vibrations. You may also consider increasing the amount of dead space within the walls to accommodate larger amounts of thick insulating material to help absorb sound. All seams in the drywall must also be properly sealed in order to block out unwanted noise.

Finishing the wall with denser materials such as brick, sheetrock, or plaster can also significantly reduce the noise level that is transmitted from room to room. Double layers of sheetrock can be used with an adhesive layer of glue or silicon caulking in between. By alternating seems out of wall covering, the soundproofing qualities of a room are greatly increased.

Special order thicker doors such as those used in commercial applications may also be needed to prevent sound from being transmitted. Common interior doors are lightweight and have a hollow center. Heavier commercial-grade doors block sound more efficiently. If you are installing double layers of drywall or sheetrock, you may also have to special order thicker doorjambs to accommodate the increased width.

Discontinuous stud wall design is ideal for walls separating the garage and the living space of your home, as well as typically noisy areas such as children’s playrooms and laundry rooms. Incorporating discontinuous stud wall design into areas such as your home office and bedroom can enrich your levels of rest and productivity by keeping out unwanted noise.

Discontinuous stud wall design used in conjunction with double layers of dry wall provides an adequate level of soundproofing for a fraction of the cost of using specially design soundproofing materials. The level of soundproofing achieved by changing the design of the stud walls and selecting denser building materials is usually adequate for the purposes of most homeowners.

Create Sistine Chapel Ceiling Effects With New Ceiling Mural Stencils

The “5th Wall” element is the long forgotten ceilings of our homes.

Look up to a great decorating surface and incorporate your ceilings in to your decorating scheme to create an elegance you never dreamed of.

With coffered and recessed tray ceilings being offered in more and more newly built homes of today’s markets, the interest in ceiling decorating is booming with home owners now in search of new and interesting ways to dress up these wonderfully architectural areas and create interest and detail on plain ceilings.

Even the most drab room suddenly becomes one of grandeur with a ceiling mural. To have a professional create a ceiling mural for you would cost literally thousands of dollars, but the average home owner can now do it themselves with little expense and absolutely no experience.

Painting the ceiling a different color is one thing and yes, it does add interest, but take it a step further by using stencils to replicate the overhead murals of fine homes and mansions.

New “perspective correct” stencils have hit the market that allow the home owner to create mural elements such as trees, columns, balustrades and even hanging grapes that literally appear to be towering above you.

As easy to use as any other stencil design, these new stencils are fashioned to be used on the ceiling rather than the wall and consist of overlays that create authentic, “hand painted” appearing designs.

Overlays are simply parts of the design cut in to different stencils and very easy to use.

The stencils are numbered as to their order of use. The registration holes (found on all the overlays) of the #1 stencil are traced on to the ceiling or wall in erasable pencil. The first overlay is stenciled then removed. The registration holes of the #2 stencil are lined up with the pencil tracing which aligns the stencil perfectly. It is then stenciled and removed. This procedure is followed with any overlays required to complete the design.

Stencil adhesive sprays are inexpensive at your local craft store and allow the stencil to stick to the ceiling without the use of tape which makes it a breeze to stencil over your head.

I just finished a ceiling mural where I began by marking off a 15×8 foot rectangle in pencil on the ceiling. Of course, you can make yours any size you choose.

I then painted the inside of the rectangle in pale blue to mimic the sky.

I stenciled a ceiling mural balustrade stencil around the inside edges of the rectangle, repeating it partially around each side and opposite corners. I then stenciled a ceiling mural urn stencil on top of the balustrade which made it appear to be literally sitting on the rail cap of the balustrade.

I couldn’t believe how realistic the whole design seemed when I was finished. I will later be stenciling vines coming from the pot and winding down around the single balusters to finish the design.

It is not necessary to completely fill a ceiling with designs to get the effect of a mural. A single simple design such as the balustrade, urn or even a single tree can be repeated in ways that fill the space and create a unique mural.

For instance, use the balustrade to completely surround the ceiling or repeat it only 3-4 times to create a “spot” ceiling mural in one corner of the room.

As with any mural, more elements can be added at any time. Murals are typically an on-going process that is a labor of love done over time.

To find stencils for ceiling murals, simply search “Ceiling Mural Stencil” on any of the search engine for sites that offer these great new designs.

Beautiful Beige Bathrooms Tiled To Be Useable And Sturdy

Nowadays bathroom tiles come in a huge selection of colors and finishes, but beige is still one of the best color choices for the bathroom. Selecting a color such as beige for the backdrop in your bathroom lets you use virtually any color that you wish when bringing in your decor to the bathroom. A light beige background is a great way to make a small bathroom look a little larger. Using a color like beige as a primary color for your bathroom design makes a very versatile room that you can make modern, traditional, elegant or casual.

Selecting Beige to Enlarge a Small Room

Lighter hues make small spaces open up. Not only do lighter hues make the walls in the room appear to move back, but they also bounce a lot of light which can make a small bathroom look spacious and airy. Creating a light color palette for a small bathroom pairs beige tile with cream colored walls. By using neutral hues in lighter colors makes the walls open up and lets you use any accent colors you wish in your room decor.

Beige to Build a Casual Look

When decorating a bathroom in a more simple style like shabby chic, creating a neutral, beige background makes the perfect foundation for the room. Once you have created your beige background you can include other light colors, like rose, light blue, sage green or lavender, to keep your small bathroom feeling spacious. Building a completely beige wall of tile also creates the perfect background in your bathroom for introducing patterns like plaid, paisley or floral. If you are looking for the best theme for your bathroom, then you might want to think about incorporating a seaside theme, because your beige tile then works perfectly with pale blue, off white and sea foam green.

Turning a Small Bathroom into a Spa

A common theme for a bathroom is a relaxing spa, and you can use this theme effectively in your bathroom regardless of its size. Using beige tile to create this spa like atmosphere functions extremely well. Beige tile combined with cream walls, fluffy white towels and wall art sculptures store or wall candle sconces can create a very minimalistic look that can be quite relaxing.

Formally Beige in the Bathroom

While beige is certainly a solid, neutral color, it can be anything but dull. Beige can be adorned or dressed down, so to make it more stylish add luxurious accessories to your bathroom. Coupling beige ceramic tile with natural stone in shades of beige builds a perfect backdrop for your elegant bathroom design. Wall mount vase and mirrors can add the finishing touch.

Designing A Shower Curtain For Your Clawfoot Tub

The clawfoot tub has really risen in popularity due to its unique and trendy shape. Nothing beats the svelte impact of having an attractively crafted piece right inside the bath. Unwinding in a bathtub full of bubbles at the close of the day in a quaint and tempting clawfoot tub drawn from the pages of yesterday is rather mesmerizing.

In the past, one of the major forfeitures a person had to make upon choosing a clawfoot bathtub was that there was no planning for fast showers, particularly for days when the user did not have sufficient time to soak in the tub. Modern clawfoot tubs ordinarily are accompanied by an connected wall shower for added serviceability. A shower curtain, shower curtain rings, a shower rod, and a shower fixture are all that the contemporary homeowner requires in order to equip their clawfoot bathtub with a shower enclosure. Constructing a shower curtain that can be installed around your clawfoot bathtub is effortless; just follow the five steps that follow.

Design plans
For starters, you will want to plan out the particular pattern that you want to use when installing the enclosure. Some people prefer to install the curtain around the clawfoot tub in a type of halo pattern that will enclose the tub in a tight space. On the other hand, you can install a straight shower curtain rod to divide the bathroom area from the actual bathtub area, thus yielding the bather more privacy.

Take measurements
Once you have come up with the design or layout, use a tape measure to measure the “drop”. The “drop” refers to the length from the flooring to the top of the shower curtain rod. Add four inches to the drop measurement for an allowance.

Buy the material or fabric
It is a good idea to select a fabric that is resistant to water and effortless to take care of. Shower curtains are ordinarily manufactured using effortless to care for choices. When choosing the pattern for your shower curtain, take into consideration the overall design and style of your bath.

Prepare the fabric
Once you have bought the fabrics, cut the fabric corresponding to your measure and then sew together or tape both ends of the fabric for added durability. If you are not skilled with a sewing machine or don’t own one, you can merely use material adhesive, making certain that you use the waterproof form. You can then affix shower hooks along the top of the material at three to four inch intervals.

Shower curtain installation
As a last measure, attach the shower curtain rings to the previously installed shower curtain rod. You should likewise make certain that clasps are firmly aligned. This keeps the curtain in its place while you are showering. As a final touch, try to move the curtain about, just to see if there are rips.
Now finish adorning your elegant bath with metal wall art in creamy white for a shabby chic or cottage feel, or bring in tree wall art, botanical prints and wall vases filled with vines and blooms for an English garden twist.